Money Supply (M2): Everything You Need to Know

Money Supply, abbreviated “M2,” and also known as the M2 money stock, is an important economic indicator that measures the amount of money in circulation. M2 is a critical metric that policymakers use to evaluate the overall health of an economy. They also look at M2 to make important decisions regarding monetary policy.

M1 vs. M2

M2 includes all the components of M1, in addition to several distinct components. The M1 money supply consists of cash, checking deposits, among other elements. M2 includes all of M1, plus savings accounts, money market mutual funds, and other elements. M2 is broader than M1, as it includes a wider range of assets and media of exchange. M2 is also a more accurate indicator of the overall health of the economy than M1.

The Federal Reserve

The Federal Reserve, the United State’s central bank, regularly tracks and reports on money supply growth, and by doing so it can better implement national economic and monetary policy.

The Federal Reserve, or Fed, influences money supply growth through its open market operations, where it buys or sells government securities. This in turn will increase or decrease M2. The Fed can also adjust the reserve requirement, or the percentage of deposits that banks must hold in reserve. As the current financial system is a fractional reserve system, banks are required to hold in reserve only a fraction of its total deposits, which affects the money supply overall.

Changes to the M2 money supply tend to have significant impacts on the overall economy. When M2 increases, inflation tends to follow, as there is more money available to purchase goods and services. Conversely, a decrease in M2 money supply can lead to deflation. Deflation occurs when there is less money available to make purchases, and drives down prices.


One of the core challenges of managing the money supply is balancing the need for growth and the potential risks of inflation.m When M2 grows too quickly, inflation follows which leads to an erosion of the value of money and of people’s wealth and savings. If M2 grows too slowly, deflation follows along with slow economic growth. M2 must be kept at a balance to ensure a healthy economic landscape.

In summary, here are some key points to note regarding M2 money supply:

  • M2 is an economic indicator that measures the amount of money in circulation within an economy.

  • M2 includes cash, checking deposits, savings accounts, money market mutual funds, and time deposits less than $100,000.

  • The Federal Reserve monitors and reports on changes in the money supply to inform monetary policy decisions.

  • Changes in the money supply can impact inflation, deflation, and economic growth.

  • Policymakers must balance the need for growth with the risks of inflation when managing the money supply.

Share this post on:

About the Author

Jeff Sekinger

Jeff Sekinger Founder & CEO, 0 Percent Who is Jeff Sekinger? Visionary Trailblazer Sekinger has been in the financial industry for over a decade. Starting

Related Articles

Stay in the Loop

Sign up to receive news & updates!